Grape saplings in Moldova will be produced in an accelerated way.
In Moldova, it became possible to solve the problem of updating vineyards in a shorter time – laying new plantations on the basis of healthy planting material.
This opportunity has gained real shape due to the modernization of the virology and phytosanitary control laboratory, as well as the repair of the greenhouse for the acclimatization of seedlings of the Scientific and Practical Institute of Horticulture, Viticulture and Food Technologies. Funds for these transformations were allocated by donors: the governments of Romania and the USA, through development agencies – RoAid and USAID, respectively.
In particular, the agency RoAid provided $ 30 thousand for the modernization of the laboratory, and USAID – $ 45 thousand for the restoration of the greenhouse. Director of the Institute Konstantin Dadu noted that these investments are aimed at the production of planting material of high biological categories, i.e. free from viral and bacterial diseases. Modern laboratory equipment allows you to test the planting material and produce it invitro (“in glass”). The planting material grown in the laboratory will grow for a while in a greenhouse, before planting in the field. And another part of the funds the institute will have to invest in the mother liquors of graft and rootstock vines, from where material of the biological category “basic” will be supplied to nurseries for breeding. And they, in turn, will produce seedlings of the category “certified” for subsequent sale.
“Recently we have been paying great attention to local grape varieties, since “They are adapted to the conditions of Moldova and give a good result,” says Victor Bondarchuk, head of the laboratory of virology and phytosanitary control. – The work on obtaining the original clones is carried out jointly with the laboratory of selection, which identifies clones, and our laboratory heals them and carries out an accelerated reproduction of the material. In the process of reproduction, we used different methods – green grafts, dry grafts, but the best results were shown by the accelerated reproduction by the in vitro culture method. Thanks to a grant from the Government of Romania, we have modernized this system. ”
In the old vineyards of local varieties, in breeding plots or on industrial plantations, specialists of the Institute select bushes with characteristic ampelographic data and high yields. Vine samples are taken from them, they are tested for the presence of viral, phytoplasmic diseases and bacterial cancer.
Pure material is used for propagation by the method of microclonal grafting in the invitro culture. This method is very good because the reproduction is exponentially. Within six months, 300-400 new plants can be obtained from one plant. Microclones are placed in a nutrient medium. The institute is able to grow up to 6 thousand microclones in one special laboratory room. After they go through the process of adaptation to the environment, the plants are transplanted into the soil substrate. When they got accustomed, and active growth begins, they are transferred to the greenhouse.
“For example, in Italy they could be transplanted into the soil on the field. But since the climate of Moldova is periodically characterized by low air and soil temperatures, these plants, after invitro culture, must be grown in a greenhouse, ”the scientist explained.
Plants planted in 2017, gave a gain of about one meter. This year they will be taken from them a vine for grafting and getting grafted seedlings, since microclonal grafting method gives own-rooted seedlings. Since in our country there is a danger of phylloxera, it is necessary to produce grafted seedlings.
The director of the USAID Moldova mission, Karen Hilliard, drew attention to the fact that young scientists are also working in the laboratory team. “Through the joint efforts of the governments of Romania and the USA, aimed at updating the laboratory and greenhouses, we support the Moldovan government in creating jobs for young people in Moldova and keeping them at home,” the head of the donor mission said.