Boris Gaina: All companies use developments of our scientists
We will discuss with AHM chief scientific secretary, Dr.Sci.Tech., AHM member-reporter, Mr. Boris Gaina, about practical implementation of scientific developments.
– Mister Gaina, you are engaged in researches in the winemaking and viticulture field. Today this one of the most insisted on trends in Moldova. What are the objectives put in front of the scientists who work in this field?
– During his last meeting with the scientists of the National Institute of Vineyards and Wine, the President of Rep. Moldova Vladimir Voronin emphasized several activity priorities in the science and innovations field. The most important thing is for our agricultural sector to start operating in market economy conditions and to correspond to all requirements of internal and especially external markets. At present, more than 60% from the total consumption of wines in Russia is covered by our country. Our target is to continue to work on increase of wine quality. Our wines should be competitive not only on the low price shelves, which they occupy. We want them to improve, because they deserve it. Competing with French, Italian, Spanish, German, Argentine, Chilean wines, which penetrate more and more on this market, we have to provide Russian consumer with a quality wine.
What is already being done for above mentioned objective? At present, in republic we are planting only certified planting material, without any viruses or bacteria. Starting with 2006, it will be prohibited to produce or plant non-certified material. It means that our vineyards will yield a more stable, high and qualitative harvest. There will not be, anymore, such cases when several vine bushes are benefited from to the maximum and as a result give low sugar content and high acidity and produced wine has, sometimes, problems. At present, alongside with technical sorts, we give more of our attention to table sorts of grape, as well. Our local market consumes a significant quantity of table sorts. On 20 thousand of hectares we planted table sorts, and we produce more than 100 thousand tons of marketable grapes.
– How does it happen, then, that our local market is practically flooded with imported table sorts of grapes?
– Unfortunately, on our market, excepting local sort “Moldova”, all other sorts of grape are imported. This is why, both scientists and winemakers, have to face big problems, in this matter. We should provide both, local and neighboring countries markets, with good table sorts of grape. Additionally to sorts of early ripeness, we would like to have seedless sorts, sultanas, which are consumed by children, ill persons, old people or people with special diet. These sorts are caloric, reach in pectin, endowed with regulating function of gastrointestinal tract.
It means that, at the moment, we have the following objectives: improvement of grapes assortment, production of viruses free planting material, return to the production of world known Moldovan juices, production of biologically and ecologically pure table wines from stable sorts of grape. Ecological production is really of big importance, because in the Western Europe, only 30% of ecological products shelves are seized. While, prices for these products are three-four times higher. Therefore, we pay attention to the necessity to intensify our efforts with respect to conversion of agricultural land tracts from traditional to ecologically pure ones – in order to have certified-ecological raw material. Juices and wines produced out of this raw material are given certificate of ecologically pure products, which offers the opportunity to penetrate on European, American, Canadian, Japanese and Chinese markets.
– AHM activity, lately, was perceived as comparatively estranged from the real life. Today, you are telling that you will promote ecologically-pure agriculture. To achieve this, you probably need to cooperate with certain companies, production associations, meaning, with those who will apply this in practice. For example, as I know, today, many companies are developing new wines by themselves.
– But, basing on what sorts they are developing new wines? Basing on those that are provided by the science! These companies cannot activate without the possibility to receive from the science healthy planting material, obtained from good clones, which will live, not just 13-14 years, as it was during collective farm times, but which will bring harvest during 30-35 years. These companies are applying the developments of our scientists, which have been realized at the expense of public funds. As a result, they are investing in renewal of the assortment, technological base, and application of bio-technological achievements. For example, they are using ferments, which allow quickly and qualitatively to defecate juice, because quality of juices, wines and sparkling drinks depends a lot on technological methods, which, in their turn, are based on scientific developments.
– What are the mechanisms of interaction between science and practical work?
– We opt for the most difficult directions, which other companies are afraid to undertake. For example, development of production technology for planting material free of bacterial cancer. In this field one company is not enough. These researches are financed by the state, but, by the means of taxation of the companies who are using our achievements state is compensating part of the incurred expenses.
Second issue: We have concluded many agreements with economic agents, whom we assist in specific problems. At the moment we are intensively planting the vineyards. Also, science deals with selection, soil analysis and curing of the vineyards. It’s quite another matter that many companies have sufficiently high scientific potential to develop different brands of wine. But, excuse me, who provides them with specialists, if not we do? I lecture for 22 years in Polytechnic institute of winemaking. During last four years, I lecture in French. So, they are my students! And they became my colleagues!
– Who, specifically is your student?
– First of all, personally, I was taught by an academician, founder of the Polytechnic school, Sergei Radautzan, and also, by AH member-reporter Petru Unguryanu, who is by right, considered founder of the Oenology School of Moldova. During war time, in Kimbaiy, near Tashkent, he was producing sparkling wine for headquarters and during five years carried out a special mission of USSR, afterwards, all his knowledge, he was transmitting to us.
My students, at present, activate in quality inspection of winemaking products – namely, this is doctor Boris Zamaru. In Polytechnic Institute there is a young lecturer, Andrey Prida, who made an excellent study on Moldovan oak-tree as winemaking material, in comparison with Romanian, Ukrainian and French one.
I am very proud of my colleagues, who are managing private companies: Feodosii Borsh (Doina-vin), Valerian Bejan, who is working on his doctor’s degree, General Director of Mindreshti wine factory, Petru Kirmikchi, my colleague from Faleshti, with whom we developed several new brands of wine from new sorts of grapes, resistible to low temperatures from northern region. I cannot forget about my colleague from Borchyag, Valeriu Hlibichiuk, together with whom we took active part in enlargement of produced goods assortment.
In one word, there is not, practically, one factory where would not work our former students, whom we have graduated, there is not, at least, one viticulture, winemaking region where would not activate my alumnus.